History of the Industrial Revolution - New World Encyclopedia
The industrial revolution transformed the way people thought and worked. Find out why 10 Facts About the Battle of Isandlwana · Next Article. Discover facts about the life of James Watt, the Scottish inventor and engineer - well renowned for his improvements in steam engine technology. Date: The luddites did however bring the flaws of the Industrial Revolution to the northwestmusicscene.info?qid.
Given this relative tolerance and the supply of capital, the natural outlet for the more enterprising members of these sects would be to seek new opportunities in the technologies created in the wake of the Scientific revolution of the 17th century. Social Effects In terms of social structure, the Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of a middle class of industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility and gentry. Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories, but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labor dominated by a pace set by machines.
However, harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the industrial revolution took place as well. Pre-industrial society was very static and often cruel—child labor, dirty living conditions and long working hours were just as prevalent before the Industrial Revolution. Arguably the first was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby was operational by However, the rise of the factory came somewhat later when cotton - spinning was mechanized.
The factory system was largely responsible for the rise of the modern cityas workers migrated into the cities in search of employment in the factories. Nowhere was this better illustrated than the mills and associated industries of Manchester, nicknamed Cottonopolis, and arguably the world's first industrial city. For much of the nineteenth century, production was done in small mills, which were typically powered by water and built to serve local needs.
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Later each mill would have its own steam engine and a tall chimney to give an efficient draft through its boiler. The transition to industrialization was not wholly smooth.
For example, a group of English workers known as Luddites formed to protest against industrialization and sometimes sabotaged factories, by throwing a wooden shoe sabot into the mechanical works. One of the earliest reformers of factory conditions was Robert Owen. In other industries the transition to factory production followed a slightly different course. Inan integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol.
Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins, wire, and other goods. Housing was provided for workers on site. Josiah Wedgwood and Matthew Boulton were other prominent early industrialists, who employed the factory system.
Child labor The Industrial Revolution led to a population increase. Industrial workers were better paid than those in agriculture.
With more money, women ate better and had healthier babies, who were themselves better fed. Child mortality rates declined, and the distribution of age in the population became more youthful. There was limited opportunity for formal education, and children were expected to work in order to bring home wages. Employers could pay a child less than an adult even though their productivity was comparable; there was no need for strength to operate an industrial machine, and since the industrial system was completely new there were no experienced adult laborers.
This made child labor the labor of choice for manufacturing in the early phases of the industrial revolution. A young "drawer" pulling a coal tub up a mine shaft Child labor had existed before the Industrial Revolution, but with the increase in population and education it became more visible. Before the passing of laws protecting children, many were forced to work in terrible conditions for much lower pay than their elders.
Reports were written detailing some of the abuses, particularly in the coal mines  and textile factories  and these helped to spread knowledge the children's plight.
The public outcry, especially among the upper and middle classes, helped stir change in the young workers' welfare. Politicians and the government tried to limit child labor by law, but factory owners resisted; some felt that they were aiding the poor by giving their children money to buy food to avoid starvation, and others simply welcomed the cheap labor. In andthe first general laws against child labor, the Factory Acts, were passed in England: Children younger than nine were not allowed to work, children were not permitted to work at night, and the work day of youth under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours.
Factory inspectors supervised the execution of the law. About ten years later, the employment of children and women in mining was forbidden. These laws decreased the number of child laborers; however, child labor remained in Europe up to the twentieth century. Shows the densely populated and polluted environments created in the new industrial cities Living conditions during the Industrial Revolution varied from the splendor of the homes of the owners to the squalor of the lives of the workers.
Cliffe Castle, Keighley, is a good example of how the newly rich chose to live. This is a large home modeled loosely on a castle with towers and garden walls. The home is very large and was surrounded by a massive garden, the Cliffe Castle is now open to the public as a museum.
Poor people lived in very small houses in cramped streets. These homes would share toilet facilities, have open sewers and would be at risk of damp.
Disease was spread through a contaminated water supply.
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Conditions did improve during the nineteenth century as public health acts were introduced covering things such as sewage, hygiene and making some boundaries upon the construction of homes.
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Transportation Transportation changed dramatically throughout the Industrial Revolution. Where before people traveled by horse, walking, or boat; new ways of travel were introduced including railroads, steam boats, and automobiles. This changed the way people and products were able to travel around the country and the world.
Working Conditions One drawback of the Industrial Revolution was poor working conditions for people in factories. There were few laws to protect workers at the time and working conditions were often dangerous. People often had to work long hours and child labor was a common practice.
By the end of the s, labor unions and new laws began to create a safer working environment. Interesting Facts About the Industrial Revolution Many early factories were powered by water so they had to be by a river that could turn the waterwheel. A group of weavers in Britian who lost their jobs to large factories began to fight back by rioting and destroying machinery. They became known as Luddites after one of their leaders Ned Ludd.
Printers were able to use steam power to print newspapers and books cheaply.The Industrial Revolution (18-19th Century)
This helped more people get the news and learn how to read. Some of the most important American inventions during the Industrial Revolution included the telegraph, the sewing machine, telephone, cotton gin, the practical light bulb, and vulcanized rubber. Manchester, England was the center of the textile industry during the Industrial Revolution.