Hebrew calendar - Wikipedia
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Dantewriting c. The first attempt to go forward with such a reform was undertaken by Pope Sixtus IVwho in invited Regiomontanus to the Vatican for this purpose.
However, the project was interrupted by the death of Regiomontanus shortly after his arrival in Rome. Numerous publications over the following decades called for a calendar reform, among them two papers sent to the Vatican by the University of Salamanca in and but the project was not taken up again until the s, and implemented only under Pope Gregory XIII r.
Preparation Inthe Council of Trent authorized Pope Paul III to reform the calendar, requiring that the date of the vernal equinox be restored to that which it held at the time of the First Council of Nicaea in and that an alteration to the calendar be designed to prevent future drift. This would allow for a more consistent and accurate scheduling of the feast of Easter. Ina Compendium was sent to expert mathematicians outside the reform commission for comments. Some of these experts, including Giambattista Benedetti and Giuseppe Moletobelieved Easter should be computed from the true motions of the sun and moon, rather than using a tabular method, but these recommendations were not adopted.
He also produced an original and practical scheme for adjusting the epacts of the moon when calculating the annual date of Easter, solving a long-standing obstacle to calendar reform.
Ancient tables provided the sun's mean longitude.
Gregorian calendar - Wikipedia
Tycho Brahe also noticed discrepancies. He noted that it is consistent with the tropical year of the Alfonsine tables and with the mean tropical year of Copernicus De revolutionibus and Erasmus Reinhold Prutenic tables. The three mean tropical years in Babylonian sexagesimals as the excess over days the way they would have been extracted from the tables of mean longitude were 14,33,9,57 Alfonsine14,33,11,12 Copernicus and 14,33,9,24 Reinhold.
All values are the same to two places Thus Pitatus' solution would have commended itself to the astronomers. Firstly, he proposed a correction to the length of the year. The mean tropical year is The discrepancy results in a drift of about three days every years.
Lilius's proposal resulted in an average year of At the time of Gregory's reform there had already been a drift of 10 days since the Council of Nicaea, resulting in the vernal equinox falling on 10 or 11 March instead of the ecclesiastically fixed date of 21 March, and if unreformed it would drift further.
Lilius proposed that the day drift should be corrected by deleting the Julian leap day on each of its ten occurrences over a period of forty years, thereby providing for a gradual return of the equinox to 21 March. Lilius's work was expanded upon by Christopher Clavius in a closely argued, page volume.
He would later defend his and Lilius's work against detractors.
Besides, the author of Kings coordinated dates in the two kingdoms by giving the accession year of a monarch in terms of the year of the monarch of the other kingdom, e. For example, Jewish communities in the Babylonian diaspora counted the years from the first deportation from Israel, that of Jehoiachin in BCE, e. The era year was then called "year of the captivity of Jehoiachin".
The Books of the Maccabees used Seleucid era dating exclusively e. Josephus writing in the Roman period also used Seleucid era dating exclusively.
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During the Talmudic era, from the 1st to the 10th century, the center of world Judaism was in the Middle East, primarily in the Talmudic Academies of Iraq and Palestine. Jews in these regions used Seleucid era dating also known as the "Era of Contracts".
Jacob then put this question: How do we know that our Era [of Documents] is connected with the Kingdom of Greece at all?
Why not say that it is reckoned from the Exodus from Egypt, omitting the first thousand years and giving the years of the next thousand? In that case, the document is really post-dated! In the Diaspora the Greek Era alone is used. He [the questioner] thought that Rav Nahman wanted to dispose of him anyhow, but when he went and studied it thoroughly he found that it is indeed taught [in a Baraita ]: In the 8th and 9th centuries, as the center of Jewish life moved from Babylonia to Europe, counting using the Seleucid era "became meaningless".
New year A shofar made from a ram's horn is traditionally blown in observance of Rosh Hashanahthe beginning of the Jewish civic year. Nisan 1 is referred to as the ecclesiastical new year. In ancient Israel, the start of the ecclesiastical new year for the counting of months and festivals i. Passover is on 15 Nisan, Leviticus As Passover is a spring festival, it should fall on a full moon day around, and normally just after, the vernal northward equinox.
If the twelfth full moon after the previous Passover is too early compared to the equinox, a leap month is inserted near the end of the previous year before the new year is set to begin. According to normative Judaism, the verses in Exodus Hence the court, not the astronomy, has the final decision. The day most commonly referred to as the "New Year" is 1 Tishrei, which actually begins in the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year. The 71st Festival de Cannes will take place from 8 to 19 May Festival Medieval de Sedan Sedan Castle is one of the great European castles and is a worthy host for the thousands of people who come to experience the atmosphere of the Middle Ages for this medieval festival.
Traditional banquets, fairs, tournaments, wrestling competitions and sword duels await festivalgoers. The medieval fest runs from 26 to 27 May Held for the first time inthe five-day festival runs from Thursday to Whit Monday.
A huge carnival parade starts festivities, winding its way through the city streets and culminating in a large firework display in the arenas, launching the mass celebrations of the million people who come.
The festival of opera and classical music takes place in a beautifully preserved Roman Theatre in Orange. The 9, spectators enjoy not only the incredible historic atmosphere of the ancient building but also, because it has retained the original stone stage wall, amazing natural acoustics. Inthe festival runs from 20 June to 4 August. Carcassone Festival The extremely well-preserved medieval city of Carcassonne is always worth a visit, especially during its summer-long festival.
Check the festival website for dates.
Thousands of musicians gather in the streets, bars, and cafes giving free performances of all kinds of music, from jazz to rock and from hip-hop to electronic music. Bastille Day A day of national celebration for the French, this public holiday commemorates the day that Parisian commoners and peasants stormed the fortress and prison of Bastille, provoking events that would end the monarchy and usher in the age of liberty, fraternity and equality.
There are celebrations all over France but the place to be is the capital. Celebrations start in Paris on the night of 13 July, when many fire stations have all-night parties. Festivities last until the late hours.
Every year there are around 40 different shows in venues around the city, both French and non-French, in a variety of art forms — theatre, dance, music and cinema, many of them world or French premieres. This year, the festival will take place from 6—24 July Enchanted Arts Festival A brand-new entrant to the French festival scene, the Enchanted Arts Festival marries art and activism together. The first edition of this festival takes place 27—29 July