Distribution of Significant Fixed Truss Bridges by FDOT District. This report identifies and describes the predominant bridge types found .. National Park Service guidance, significant engineers and architects are often Despite the vast sums spent, roads and bridges dating from the Boom were often. loss of both the Henry's Fork Snake River Bridge .. T. Allan Comp and Donald Jackson, Bridge Truss Types: A Guide to Dating and Identifying. The basic types of truss bridges shown in this article have simple designs which could be easily . There are many types, many dating back hundreds of years.
Bridges with a slight grade are good for surface water runoff. Environmental considerations such as wetlands, endangered species, and floating debris may also play a factor in determining the length.
The most common method to specify the length of a pedestrian truss bridge is the distance between abutment backwalls.
Note that the bridge bearing is typically 3 inches to 9 inches from the abutment backwall and thermal expansion of the bridge is accounted for with slide bearings and a gap derived from the formula below, which assumes degree temperature differential.
Base plates with slotted holes on one end of the bridge allow for this thermal movement in the field. Deck type — The deck type selected is a function of the bridge use and has a direct impact on the dead load of the structure. Industry standard deck options include cast-in-place, reinforced concrete, precast planks, open grating, and composite or wood decking. Finish — Three main finish options are typically offered for prefabricated steel truss bridges: Each finish has its purpose based on the bridge application and environmental exposure.
Safety rail system — Either horizontal rails or vertical pickets are the industry standard safety systems. Horizontal rails are used most widely for economical reasons while a more costly vertical picket system is used for aesthetic reasons or, at times, safety concerns as the horizontal safety rails may act as a ladder for children to climb, creating a potential hazard.
The specifier needs to consider the setting and usage of the bridge, as well as economics, when determining the appropriate safety system for the project. Camber — Camber is put into bridges for two primary reasons: The use of camber as a structural "arch" is virtually never considered for prefabricated bridges and should not enter into the decision on how much to camber a bridge. Camber is typically specified in one of four ways or by some combination of the following: A percentage of the dead load deflection.
Bridges deemed to be "flat" are usually cambered to offset percent of the full dead load deflection to ensure that there is no sag due to fabrication tolerances, et cetera.
Design Considerations for Pedestrian Truss Bridge Structures
Once the bridge is in place, a slight "crown" is hardly noticeable but a small amount of "sag" in the bridge may be visually unappealing.
A specified vertical dimension at bridge midspan. To produce a desired deck slope typically in conformance with ADA where required.
Camber is typically based on a circular curve. There is minimal difference between a circle and a parabola at the typical cambers used in pedestrian structures. Also, vehicle speeds, if any, are low; therefore, the increased cost to detail and fabricate a parabolic arch is unwarranted. Additional accessories and their general use s are as follows: Toe plate — required on all H-section bridges Figure 1b or whenever there is no continuous structural member at or near deck level.
Used to keep people from inadvertently stepping off the bridge and to prevent objects from rolling off the bridge.
Fencing — typically used on overpass structures to ensure pedestrian safety and prevent falling objects. Rubrail — typically used for bridge structures on bicycle paths. Pratt truss bridge cross section details Design The design of prefabricated steel truss pedestrian bridges is based on the siting and functionality factors previously discussed combined with the loading conditions — wind, dead, live, fatigue, snow, seismic, and stream force — required for the bridge.
Seismic and stream load forces are key determinations that should be addressed by the specifying engineer during the specification phase and are discussed briefly in this article. Truss type — Often, the aesthetics of a particular truss type is the driving factor for the selection process.
As previously mentioned, prefabricated truss bridges went into use in the s, but the design and use of truss bridges dates to when the Town's Lattice Truss was patented, which is one of only 27 truss types in use globally. Today, one of the most common styles is the Pratt truss, patented inwhich has vertical members and diagonals sloping to the center, resulting in a statically determinate structure that is ideal for long spans.
This section focuses on Pratt truss design considerations that include four basic cross section details as shown in Figure 1.
Base de données d'architecture internationale
The following is a brief discussion of typical scenarios where each of the common bridge types could be utilized most efficiently. These scenarios consider shipping and fabrication costs as well as efficient structural use of materials, recognizing situations where geometry is a concern. Likewise, she can let you know that she's a human woman with flaws and insecurities, not a hot babe who will never burden you with a single emotional need.
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